Tuesday, September 13, 2011

Copenhagen Accord and India's Commitments

India is currently the world's 7th largest emitter of global warming pollution and 5th largest for emissions from fossil fuel combustion. It accounts for approximately 4 percent of the world's emissions (1,866 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)). Per capita emissions are 1.7 metric tons of CO2e (154th highest in the world).

Action Commitment

India has made a commitment to reduce its emissions per unit of GDP 20 to 25 percent below 2005 levels by 2020. To meet and exceed this goal, India is increasing fuel efficiency standards by 2011; adopting building energy codes by 2012; increasing forest cover to sequester 10 percent of its annual emissions; and increasing the fraction of electricity derived from wind, solar, and small hydro from the current 8 percent to 20 percent by 2020.

Action AreaCommitment

Programs and Policies to Achieve Commitment


Reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP 20-25% by 2020 (from 2005 levels). The target does not include emissions from agriculture.

India's National Action Plan on Climate Change includes the following eight national missions:

· National Solar Mission

· National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency

· National Mission on Sustainable Habitat

· National Water Mission

· National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem

· National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture

· National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change

India has formed an Expert Group on Low Carbon Strategy for Sustainable Growth. The group's recommendations will be adopted in India's Twelfth Five-Year Plan in 2012.

The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) has a series of measures to strengthen its scientific base and broaden its capabilities around climate change mitigation and adaptation including:

· Regular Emissions Inventory; In May 2010, India became the first developing country to publish its 2007 emissions inventory and promised to release it every other year.

· Comprehensive science program with its Indian Network of Climate Change Assessment (INCCA), involving 120 research institutions.

· Global Advisory Network Group on Environmental Sciences (GANGES)

· National Environmental Sciences Fellows Programme

· Expert Committee to Enhance the Scientific Capacity of MoEF

· Action Plan to Enhance Forestry Science


1. Install 20 GW of solar energy by 2022 through $19 billion in investments.

2. Curb emissions by nearly 100 million tons a year and cut annual energy consumption 5 percent by 2015 – adding 20 GW of capacity and fuel savings of 23 million tons per year -- through enhanced energy efficiency.

3. Require mandatory energy-efficient building code for commercial and high-rise residential buildings.

4. Establish efficiency standards and labels for 11 household appliances, such as air-conditioners, lights, and televisions.

5. Institute green transportation systems in major cities.

6. Create clean energy financing and incentives.

7. Implement the Obama-Singh "Green Partnership" on energy security, climate change and food security.

1. Under the National Solar Mission, the government will establish a fund with an initial investment of $1.1 billion. The government will add to the fund through a new fossil fuel tax of 0.1 cents for every kWh produced. India is providing funding incentives to solar power operators, financial institutions, state and local governments, utilities, NGOs, and entrepreneurs. These incentives include capital subsidies of up to 30%, low-interest loans, and feed-in-tariffs for rooftop solar projects.

2. Under the National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency, India is establishing measures and policies to curb emissions and cut annual energy consumption.

· The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) is establishing the innovative Perform, Achieve and Trade (PAT) Mechanism for Energy Efficiency, which is a trading program for energy intensive industrial facilities and power stations.

· India has also invested in sustainable buildings: the Green Building Council is projecting 1000 LEED-certified buildings and a $4 billion market by 2012.

3. India's voluntary Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), revised in 2009, is anticipated to become mandatory in 2012. BEE has created a ECBC User Guide to encourage efficient building construction. India has also established a star labeling program for buildings.

4. BEE has established voluntary efficiency standards for 11 household appliances and mandatory standards for refrigerators, air conditioners, tube-lights and transformers. India will accelerate the shift to efficient appliances through its Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency program, an incentives scheme to make energy efficient appliance more affordable.

5. India will institute mandatory fuel-efficiency standards on all cars and trucks by 2011. India has already converted its bus, taxi, and city vehicle fleets to compressed natural gas in four megacities and is expanding to larger and medium sized cities. A number of major cities, including Delhi and Mumbai, are building new metro rail and bus rapid transit systems.

6. India announced a "coal tax" of 50 rupees per metric ton. The resulting revenues will go to a National Clean Energy Fund, which will finance clean energy research and development. India repealed subsidies for gasoline and lowered subsidies for diesel and kerosene. The government also reduced import duties on renewable energy equipment and exempted some renewable energy machinery, such as wind turbine parts, from a domestic production tax on new goods.

7. India and the United States have been developing one of the priority initiatives of the Partnership, the Program to Advance Clean Energy (PACE), focused on both research and deployment. Indian and U.S. labs are working closely together on solar and wind technologies. The Brookhaven National Lab is assisting with creation of India's first zero emissions town in Rajarhat, West Bengal. Furthermore, the United States and India will co-lead the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliances Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, which will transform the global appliance market by improving incentive and labeling programs, strengthening standards, and funding research and development. Initially, SEAD will focus on strengthening standards for consumer goods such as televisions, lighting and air conditioners.

DEFORESTATIONDouble the rate of restored forest cover, removing 43 million tons CO2e each year, or 6.35% of India's annual greenhouse gas emissions, by 2020

Under its Green Mission, India is investing $2.5 billion (Rs 11,700 crore) for forest conservation and reforestation projects. India plans to increase investment every year to revitalize 6 million hectares of degraded forestlands.

ADAPTATIONFocus on adaptation to climate variability, specifically related to water, agriculture, health and sanitation, forests, coastal-zone infrastructure and protection against extreme weather events.

India is currently developing its National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture and Water, which focuses on preparing for climate change impacts.

Source : NRDC

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